Milk proteins have been used as valued ingredients and a source of endless opportunities as they help to achieve the required flavour, colour and texture in many products including chocolate, coatings, caramels, aerated confections and toffee. Milk proteins such as caseinates, demineralised whey powder, whole milk powder, and sweetened condensed milk are ideal for nutritious products due to the wealth of health benefits. They deliver taste, functionality and nutrition.
The various milk proteins used in formulating, healthy tasty and nutritious products:
Caseinates are spray dried milk protein, type fresh curd, derived from fresh pasteurised skimmed milk. Caseinate protein is extracted through acidification, followed by neutralisation and drying, which in turn provides with a slow digesting protein.
Although available for some time, caseinate is referred to as a late "rising star" in the protein supplement arena. Caseinates help decrease protein breakdown, thus are referred to as having anticatabolic properties. Caseinate proteins are pH-sensitive and gel in the acidic environment of the stomach. As a result, it can take more than twice as long for caseinates to be broken down into their amino acid subcomponents than whey and other proteins. Because of these unique ”time-released” qualities, caseinates are aptly described as being anticatabolic, or muscle protecting proteins.
Applications of caseinates
Caseinates are one of the principal types of functional proteins used by food industry.
Caseinates have good functional properties as emulsifiers and stabilisers. This makes them extremely suitable for use in dairy products, soups and sauces, cheese spreads and meat products.
Caseinate is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser in cream liqueurs containing cream, sodium caseinate, added sugar, ethanol, and trisodium citrate to prevent calcium-induced gelation.
Caseinate is used in ice creams’ substitutes and frozen desserts to improve whipping properties, body and texture and to act as a stabiliser and also find uses in mousses, instant puddings and whipped toppings for similar reasons and because it acts as an emulsifier and film former. Sodium caseinate is used to reduce syneresis and increase gel firmness in yoghurts
Caseinates are used to stabilise the physical (often emulsion like) structure during processing and storage stages. Caseinate is found to be better texture-enhancing protein than other dairy proteins in processed meat although this is not through gelation mechanism. Caseinate has been approved as a purge controller in cooked pork products. In finely comminuted such as Frankfurters, caseinate is used to emulsify fat, leaving the meat proteins free to bind water. In coarsely comminuted meats such as hamburgers and sausages, caseinate can be used in the formation of pre-emulsion, which when chopped into meat, improves the texture and succulence of the meat.
Demineralised whey powder
Demineralised whey (also called reduced-minerals whey) is obtained by removing a portion of the minerals from pasteurised whey. Typical levels of demineralisation are 25%, 50% and 90%. The dry product may not exceed 7% ash. Demineralised whey is produced by physical separation techniques such as precipitation, filtration or dialysis. The acidity of demineralised whey may be adjusted by the addition of safe and suitable pH ingredients. Demineralised whey powder is obtained after electrodialysis or ion exchange to reduce the mineral content of whey.
From a nutritional viewpoint, DSW naturally contains higher levels of important minerals and vitamins than any other whey ingredient. It is sometimes used to replace SMP in food applications where an ingredient with less protein and higher levels of lactose is acceptable. DSW is an excellent source of natural dairy calcium and a 100 gm serving provides approximately 150% of the recommended daily intake for adult males based on WHO guidelines. The lactose in DSW has added value and helps increase calcium absorption and retention.
For dairy, bakery, confectionery, and other food and nutritional products (including infant formula) as
● An economical source of dairy solids
● An alternative to sweet whey powder, when lower mineral/ash content and a high lactose content is desired for nutritional or flavour reasons
● An alternative to lactose, when a moderate protein content provides added nutritional or functional advantages
The formulation of milk and white chocolate contains demineralised whey as protein content in these is a key component in the Maillard reaction between amino acids and sugars. Demineralised whey is used as total or partial replacement for milk powders in coating formulations.
Whole milk powder
Milk powders contribute nutritionally, functionally and economically to a variety of food formulations including bakery, confectionery, dairy, recombined milk, meat, nutritional beverages, and prepared foods. Dry whole milk/whole milk powder is usually obtained by removing water from pasteurised, homogenised whole milk. It may also be obtained by blending fluid, condensed or skimmed milk powder with liquid or dry cream or with fluid, condensed or dry milk.
For bakery, confectionery, dairy, prepared mixes, sauces, and soups as
● An economical source of dairy solids, including milkfat
● A convenient form of nutritious milk that doesn't require refrigeration, and is easily reconstituted
● An easily transported and stored dairy ingredient
Sweetened condensed milk
Sweetened condensed milk is concentrated milk to which sugar has been added to act as a preservative. Condensed milk is truly a health food as it contains all the essential nutrients namely proteins, fats, carbohydrates required for all age groups. It can be considered as an energy bar. Its health benefits include good bone health, great skin, prevention of illnesses and goo immune system. Vitamins A and D are the fat-soluble vitamins present in good proportion and play important role in vision and skin pigmentation. Presence of calcium helps in formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, especially in growing children. Other nutrients present in condensed milk include potassium for proper nerve function, magnesium for muscular function and phosphorus for energy metabolism.
The sugar confectionery industry is a major user for the production of toffee, caramel and fudge. Sweetened condensed milk is an effective alternative to liquid milk which was traditionally used in these products. The milk fat is full cream sweetened condensed milk contributing a unique flavour to toffees, caramels and fudges as well as providing characteristic texture and palate lubrication. Chocolate confectionery manufacturers also use sweetened condensed milk for the production of caramel for enrobing and it may be blended with cocoa liquor to produce a paste which is vaccum dried to form chocolate crumb. Condensed milk can be used as a salad